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I have had the honor to serve as Guest Editor for this journal several times...

I have had the honor to serve as Guest Editor for this journal several times over the last few decades, watching it grow all along. Reflecting on my 50 plus years of practicing podiatric medicine and surgery, most of that time has been spent practicing pediatrics. Looking back on the evolution of podiatry itself, I think it is safe to say that the specialty today “ain’t your grandma’s chiropody.” This issue of FAQ is a particularly good example of what I have experienced over my career. Here, we examine a diverse number of topics (some of which were beyond us when I first started practice), and we’ve assembled a great group of contributors. Some are in private practice, while others enjoy a career in educating students and residents in addition to clinical practice.

As the field of practice has evolved, its medical training has evolved with it. More and more didactic and motor skills education is being moved from the predoctoral portion of education into residency and fellowship training. The explosion of information has led more and more to the need for specialty and subspecialty. I wonder, though, if eventually we may create a medical version of the biblical Tower of Babel – The medical literature is our life’s blood. Seminars are second, but textbooks are becoming passe, as books take so many years to prepare that some are virtually outdated before they are even published. This leaves literature such as this journal as our premier source of information.

I wear an added hat as a section editor for another journal. I am consistently impressed by the diversity of the authors contributing to the literature, as well as their geographic spread around the world. The source of information is astounding, but we must look critically at these articles to be certain that the information is valid. As we read, we acquire knowledge, but we must ask questions. Are the studies well-designed? Are there enough cases to justify the conclusions? Is the study population adequate? Is there financial bias?

I would like to take this opportunity to issue a challenge to my colleagues. We, as a foot and ankle specialty, need to contribute more to the medical knowledge base. We have so much to give, but we seem to leave the burden to others. The challenge: Contribute to the advancement of foot and ankle information by publishing the valuable information that we have to offer.

Edwin J. Harris, DPM, FACFAS
Guest Editor

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The ideas and opinions expressed in Foot and Ankle Quarterly are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or the Publisher. Publication of an advertisement or other product mentioned in Foot and Ankle Quarterly should not be construed as an endorsement of the product of the manufacturer’s claims. Readers are encouraged to contact the manufacturer with any questions about the features or limitations of the products mentioned. The Publisher does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to any persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the material contained in this periodical. The reader is advised to check the appropriate medical literature and the product information currently provided by the manufacturer of each device or of each drug to be administered to verify the dosage, the method and duration of administration, or contraindications. It is the responsibility of the treating physician or other healthcare professionals, relying on independent experience and knowledge of the patient, to determine drug dosages and the best treatment for the patient.


Data Trace Publishing Company Continuing Education Mission Statement

Data Trace Publishing Company is committed to providing high-quality print and internet-based enduring continuing education programs, including lectures, feature articles, and condensations and commentaries on current clinical podiatric topics and medical risk management topics which lead to improved delivery of patient care and help reduce the potential for medical errors. These programs are provided to meet the educational needs of the podiatric medical profession and thereby enhance the quality of patient care.

Program Objectives

Foot and Ankle Quarterly (FAQ) is a unique program designed to help today’s podiatric physician manage an ever-increasing flow of information. After completing the Foot and Ankle Quarterly, Volume 32 program, the learner should be better able to: develop and refine a perspective on current treatment recommendations, updates, and advances pertinent to podiatric practice; evaluate the implications of the learned information as it pertains to the diagnosis and treatment of podiatric disorders and societal issues and barriers, and; apply current trends, standards, and best practices into learner’s own practice.

Data Trace Publishing Company Continuing Education Accreditation Statement

Data Trace Publishing Company is approved by the Council on Podiatric Medical Education (CPME) as a provider of continuing education in podiatric medicine. Data Trace Publishing Company has approved this activity for a maximum of 6 continuing education contact hours (CECHs). Physicians should claim only the contact hours commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Estimated time to complete activity: 6 hours
Date of release: July 9, 2021
Expiration Date: July 31, 2024 (unless further validated and extended by provider). For amended dates of activity expiration, please see FAQ Activity Effective Dates at www.datatrace.com).

Commercial Interests

No commercial interest provided financial support for this continuing education activity.


Participants of Volume 32, Issue 2 will receive a maximum of 6 CECHs for a correctly-completed CME Answer Form. In order to qualify for CECHs, a score of 70% or more must be achieved on the written examination material. Any participant who does not pass the first time may take the exam one additional time (within 90 days of receipt of results). One retake test may be taken for a fee of $15. You will be responsible for notifying your state of the number of contact hours you have received.

Participants are required to complete a course evaluation for use in developing future issues and to meet the unique educational needs of podiatric physicians.


It is the policy of Data Trace Publishing Company to ensure balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all of its educational programs. All faculty, presenters, speakers, authors, and reviewers participating in any programs provided by Data Trace Publishing Company are expected to disclose any relevant financial relationships with CPME-defined commercial interests to the program audience. “Relevant financial relationships” are financial relationships of the individual (including those of the individual’s spouse or partner) in any amount occurring within the past 12 months that create a conflict of interest. A commercial interest is any organization manufacturing, producing, marketing, re-selling, or distributing healthcare goods or services consumed by or used on patients. The CPME mandates that the content of accredited activities be objective and independent of commercial bias. The intent of this policy is that readers may form their own judgements about the presentations, using independent review to resolve all identified conflicts of interest.

In addition to disclosing commercial relationships, faculty are advised of the following policies:

Each continuing education planner and author has submitted a Conflict of Interest Disclosure in order to identify relevant financial relationships and resolve conflicts. 

Limitations on Data: Presenter will ensure, to the extent possible, meaningful disclosure of limitations on data (e.g., ongoing research, interim analyses, preliminary data, or unsupported opinion).

Discussion of Unapproved Uses: If unapproved (unlabeled) uses are discussed during the continuing education activity, the presenter will disclose when a product is not approved in the United States (and/or the nation where the activity takes place) for the use under discussion.

Data Trace Publishing Company has identified the option to disclose as follows:

The following authors have disclosed whether they or a member of their immediate family:

  1. Will be receiving an honorarium for this activity
  2. Within the past 12 months, had a financial or other significant relationship with a commercial organization that markets a product to which they will refer as speaker or author:
    1. Received monetary or other significant research support
    2. Are or had been a paid consultant
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  3. Within the past 12 months, had a financial or other significant relationship with a commercial organization that markets a product to which they will refer as speaker or author, BUT will not be recommending any of their products over similar competitor products
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  1. Exclusively on data and/or clinical experience not generated by the manufacturer or derived from manufacturer-sponsored studies
  2. Data and/or clinical experience most of which were not generated by the manufacturer or derived from manufacturer-sponsored studies
  3. Data and/or clinical experience, most of which were generated by the manufacturer or derived from manufacturer-sponsored studies
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  5. Have no conflicts to disclose

Article Authors and Lecturers

Marc A. Brenner, DPM (1. Data Trace Publishing Company)
Pradeep Albert, MD (n.)
Elizabeth M. Bonarigo, DPM (n.)
Javier Cavazos, Jr., DPM (n.)
Byron N. Collier, DPM (n.)
Lawrence B. Harkless, DPM (n.)
Annette Joyce, DPM (n.)
Steve McClain, MD (n.)
Michael S. Nirenberg, DPM (n.)
Albert Raminfard, DO (n.)
Kim Rhatigan, MA (n.)
Bret M. Ribotsky, DPM (1. Data Trace Publishing Company)
William P. Scherer, DPM, MS (1. Data Trace Publishing Company; 3. Bako Diagnostics)
Laura Shin, DPM, PhD (n.)
Michael J. Trepal, DPM (n.)
Camryn Vader (n.)
Ebonie Vincent, DPM (n.)

FAQ Journal Planning Committee

Chrissy Calvert (n.)
Kimberly Collignon (n.)
Rachel Miller (n.)
Lauren Molander (n.)
Stephanie Wu, DPM, MSc (n.)

Foot and Ankle Quarterly 32-1 Contributors

Guest Editor

Edwin J. Harris, DPM, FACFAS
Clinical Associate Professor of Orthopedics and Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood Illinois; Faculty, Dr. William M. Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, North Chicago, IL


Patrick Agnew, DPM
Podiatric Medicine and Surgery Residency Director and Founder, Associate Professor, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA; Past President, American College of Foot and Ankle Pediatrics; Pediatrics Section Editor, Journal of Foot and Ankle Pediatrics

Brian J. Burgess, DPM, FACFAS
Fellowship Director, Hinsdale Orthopaedics (IBJI); Foot and Ankle Fellowship; Private Practice, Hinsdale Orthopaedics (a Division of IBJI), New Lenox, IL

Terri Cappello, MD
Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeon, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, IL; Member, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America; Fellow, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Private Practice, Upperline Health, Indianapolis, IN; Residency Director, Ascension St. Vincent, Indianapolis, IN; Trustee, American Podiatric Medical Association (APMA); Chair, Legislative Committee, APMA; Clinical Instructor (adjunct track), Department of Podiatric Medicine and Radiology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, Chicago, IL; Adjunct Clinical Faculty, Kent State University College of Podiatric Medicine, Independence, OH; Team Podiatrist, Indiana Pacers; Board of Editorial Advisors, Podiatry Today

Katherine E. Dux, DPM
Associate Professor, Section of Podiatry, Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL; Case Reviewer, American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery; Scientific Poster Chair, American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons

Daniel P. Evans, DPM
Professor, Department of Podiatric Medicine and Radiology, Dr. William M. Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, Chicago, IL; Fellow, American College of Podiatric Medicine; Fellow of the Faculty of Podiatric Medicine, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (Glasgow)

Richard N. Goad, DPM, MA (Bioethics), FACFAS
Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatric Podiatry Department of Surgery, McLane Children’s Medical Center, Baylor Scott and White Healthcare, Temple, TX

Hannah K. Park, DPM, AACFAS
Fellowship trained in Pediatric Orthopedics; Weil Foot and Ankle Institute, Chicago, IL; Affiliate, Rush Oak Park Hospital and Advocate Masonic Hospital, Chicago, IL; Guest Lecturer, Dr. William M. Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, Chicago, IL

Russell G. Volpe, DPM
Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Orthopedics, New York College of Podiatric Medicine Foot Center of New York; Diplomate, American Board of Podiatric Medicine; Private Practice, New York, NY and Plainview, NY

Sydney K. Yau, DPM, FACFAS
Assistant Professor, William M. Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, North Chicago, IL; Fellow, American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons; Diplomate, American Board of Podiatric Medicine

In This Issue

  • FEATURE ARTICLE: Calcaneonavicular Tarsal Coalitions: Age-Related Difficulties in Imaging and Newer Concepts in Management
    Edwin J. Harris, DPM
    • An Anatomic and Radiographic Study of the Distal Tibial Epiphysis
      Commentary by Daniel P. Evans, DPM
    • Low Energy Lateral Ankle Injuries in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients: A Systematic Review of Ankle Sprains and Nondisplaced Distal Fibula Fractures
      Commentary by Patrick Agnew, DPM
    • Applicability of the Calcaneal Apophysis Ossification Staging System to the Modern Pediatric Population
      Commentary by Edwin J. Harris, DPM
    • Post-Traumatic Subfibular Ossicle Formation in Children: Experience in a Single Primary Care Unit
      Commentary by Russell G. Volpe, DPM
    • Toe-Walking: A Neurological Perspective after Referral from Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeons
      Commentary by Patrick A. DeHeer, DPM
    • Fat Graft and Bone Wax Interposition Provides Better Functional Outcomes and Lower Reossification Rates than Extensor Digitorum Brevis after Calcaneonavicular Coalition Resection
      Commentary by Brian J. Burgess, DPM
    • Extraosseous Talotarsal Stabilization Using HyProCure®: Preliminary Clinical Outcomes of a Prospective Case Series
      Commentary by Richard N. Goad, DPM
    • Subtalar Coalitions: Does the Morphology of the Subtalar Joint Involvement Influence Outcomes after Coalition Excision?
      Commentary by Brian J. Burgess, DPM
    • Long-Term Results of the “Horseman” Procedure for Severe Idiopathic Flatfoot in Children: A Retrospective Analysis of 41 Consecutive Cases with Mean 8.9-Year Duration of Follow-Up
      Commentary by Sydney K. Yau, DPM
    • Flexible Juvenile Flatfoot Surgical Correction: A Comparison Between Two Techniques after Ten Years’ Experience
      Commentary by Katherine E. Dux, DPM
  • AUDIO LECTURE 1: Pediatric Guided Growth of the Foot and Ankle
    Terri Cappello, MD
  • AUDIO LECTURE 2: Pediatric Foot Growth Plate Injuries
    Hannah K. Park, DPM